It's like you Where am I? You cannot imagine anything good. Nothing, absolutely nothing! You, do not have much explanation! It is a mixture of feelings, many bad feelings! You are unable to see anything good! Absolutely nothing. The loss of motor, sensory, physiological, psycho-emotional, social and structural functions generates, in sequence to the care from health professionals, the intervention of new caregivers who will work during the discharge phase and in their homes.
Of all participants, six of them referred to the family as the main support to overcome the anguish experienced by the changes in their lives and the aid in the restructuring of this new perspective 5. Living in a bed, receiving nourishment, food, water, all by the hand of others, doing all the physiological needs in a bed, the others having to carry out hygiene, because I could do nothing, I just moved my eyes, could not stop, I had no strength in my body, had no balance, I fell from one side to the other and so they bound me and there I sat.
The guidance and early monitoring of patients by caregivers are important factors that facilitate a satisfactory adaptation to daily activities, through the exchange of knowledge about the relationships that are established, develop and reorganize themselves between caregiver and patient 5.
The wheelchair as evidenced by the participants, at this first moment, represents an indispensable piece of equipment. At this stage, a condition of personal conflict starts to configure in the acceptance faced with the need to use this equipment as a result of organic changes caused by spinal cord injury. At the same time, it sets up the possibility to get out of the hospital or home bed after the incident, and enables the change of the constraint condition that the person encounters due to the impossibility of locomotion.
The second category covers the statements that characterize aspects of health and illness of people affected by SCI, who start to live and perceive the changes of their organic, psychological and social functions, exteriorizing a pathological state that represents a form of "disability". The disability, especially in this sphere, faces a totally exclusionary society, in which the presence of a body that exposes the error of changes in their parts, according to the valuation of symbolic or classificatory criteria current in this society, can create different representations of this body to the human condition.
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Under this view, we must fight with the intention of constructing an inclusive society, receiving disabled people, already shaken by their losses suffered, moving away from the current model, where it is them that must adapt to the society. The relationship with the wheelchair unleashes an unlimited number of feelings and behaviors inherent in human nature. The extent of these feelings occur, from the most basic situations of the difficulties, in order to understand and accept what happened: shock, impact, fear, lack of courage, embarrassment, deep emotional pain, denial of the situation, change in body image, loss of freedom, questioning and belief in the divine, representation of absence of life, suicidal feelings through to some of the statements of hope for a cure and freedom It's complicated!
Very complicated, because we are agile in everything, then suddenly we are imprisoned in the chair, then ehhhh, there are times that we enter into The feeling of shame and inferiority appears due to the inability to walk after the injury, and these body changes culminate in the perception of being satirized by the population when displaying their current image, conferring the presence of stigma on their disability. Studies say that from this stigma, people with disabilities understand their body as an object of shame, while experimenting with disabilities in relation to the current standard of productivity in society I was ashamed, of being me that person that walked and of seeing myself in a wheelchair.
I thought the others would make fun, I thought that others would ridicule me to my face. So I thought this, I imagined this kind of thing. Another important constraint factor for people with disabilities is due to the preconceptions of individuals as well as historical and cultural aspects. This is a social phenomenon, but also with personal manifestations, which may lead to feelings of low self-esteem, difficulties in affective and social relationships, prejudicing the quality of life of people with SCI.
The way this person is "seen" is changed according to social, moral, philosophical, ethical and religious values adopted by different cultures in different historical moments. Thus, the preconceptions related to disability, though they often appear in a different configuration, still occur in modern times The guy is in a wheelchair, the guy is lame! Look, sincerely, I think that not only are we unprepared, but the people are also not prepared to receive us.
The look is different, you know! Either are we treated as pitied, or ignored! The wheelchair equipment has a clear SR of disability. This, often expressed by society in its broadest definition, includes aspects of mental disorders in people who have only motor deficits due to spinal cord injury, classified as disabled. The wheelchair can present itself as stigma associated with functional dependency, with prejudice, with futility of the human being, and with mental and cognitive deficits.
There are times that the person doesn't address you when they have to ask you something, they do not ask the person in a wheelchair, they ask the person who is with them. So, there is much that the person has to learn, that a person in the chair, doesn't always have a problem, let us assume, of the head, shall we say, mental, and, just because they are a paraplegic. The condition of disability excessively increases the difference in the eyes of society, whereby the bodily presentation highlights the difference between the whole and the fragmented, between the perfect and the imperfect, and highlights the association with a device like the wheelchair.
The historical and cultural influences, to this day, remain fraught with stigma and prejudicial values, concerning the body modified by chronic diseases such as those involved with SCI. In this aspect the wheelchair maintains the body alterations and reinforces the stigmatizing characteristics, such as the SR of the disability. It may also represent, at some point of the rehabilitation process, the transition to a more independent life through daily contact with this equipment.
The third category relates to the means of locomotion and transport that the wheelchair can be for people with paraplegia. The statements of the participants expressed the significance of a means of locomotion and as a means of transport, in a firm and clear manner, defining the wheelchair as the new way to return to walking on "four wheels" faced with the permanent motor loss caused by the spinal cord injury.
The meaning, as I told you! You move. The goal of the chair today is this, it is to be able to use it, where you can go, and you do what you can do with it. And it is to move, to do everything! The possibility of allowing freedom of movement, even on wheels, turns the wheelchair into a device that can also facilitate the reorganization of basic and even the most complex functional activities. It allows the enjoyment of social, educational, vocational and recreational opportunities, driving the person toward social integration and into a productive and rewarding lifestyle.
It's comfort! I have my chair. And it is a utility in our lives today!
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It is appropriate for us to work, do some things for us to move from one place to another. However, there is a path followed to build the representation of locomotion and transportation, therefore, before ensuring these skills independently, the wheelchair user faces many difficulties such as plegia of the trunk and lower limb muscles, loss of trunk control in sitting posture and lack of balance, being the changes related to paraplegia.
The initial experience can lead to feelings of fear, due to the instability of a wheelchair in motion, for example, the comparison with cycling for the first time The first rides are bad, because one has to get the balance like on the bicycle, so it goes to the stomach, really I fell along with the chair, because I did not know, I had no practice, right! I went backward one day, the first time there in my sister's house, I fell because I did it with a lot of strength, I didn't have balance yet, I was kind of stuck, off balance, then, I went backwards all in one go.
The better the quality of the wheelchair, the easier to steer it and to surmount the architectural barriers, found in most environments frequented by all of us, resulting in greater success in functional performance And to have a good chair too, to move in the city there, it has to be good. It's easy, every pebble overturns us, and to get up is a difficulty!
But we go living the life! In this phase, during the rehabilitation process and daily contact between the user and equipment, it will progressively enable mobility with independence in locomotion. The profile of the feelings that emerge in people with SCI presents itself as positive characteristics of well-being with the condition of adaptation to disability, with a noticeable improvement in self-esteem and also the perception that the wheelchair no longer represents a stigma or something that generates prejudice, but represents their means of locomotion and transport, along with the benefits that come with independence.
The construction of the category of social representation of the wheelchair as a part or full extension of the body of people with SCI, demonstrates the overcoming of the feelings of prejudice and stigma in the face of changes that occurred in their body and the use the wheelchair.
At this time, people demonstrate in their statements the opposition of the SR of the symbol of disability and show their perspective on life in a healthy way and feelings of happiness for their affinity with the wheelchair. Same thing as having legs, because without the wheelchair the guy is going nowhere, has to stay sitting in a place without moving, how is he going to walk he does not have a way, with the chair the force goes into the arm and the arm pushes the body, then away it goes, calm, I think!
If you take this wheelchair from me this is the same as cutting off my legs. Edited by Simon Clarke , Paul Hoggett. This book offers an overview of the rapidly expanding field of Psycho-Social research. Drawing on aspects of discourse psychology, continental philosophy and anthropological and neuro-scientific understandings of the emotions, psycho-social studies has emerged as an embryonic new paradigm in the….
This book has two essential aims. First, to introduce some of the key assumptions behind relational psychoanalysis to an international audience and to outline the points where this approach counters, complements, or extends existing object relations Kleinian and Independent traditions. Second, to…. Losing the Race Thinking Psychosocially about Racially Motivated Crime, 1st Edition By David Gadd , Bill Dixon Based on a two-year research project funded by the Economic and Social Research Council ESRC , this book explores why many of those involved in racially motivated crime seem to be struggling to cope with economic, cultural and emotional losses in their own lives.
Farhad Dalal. Why should people of one colour come to hate and fear those of another? So many conflicts appear to be caused by racial and ethnic difference; for example, the cities of Britain and America are regularly affected by race riots. It is argued by socio-biologists and some schools of psychoanalysis that our instincts are programmed to hate those different to us by evolutionary and developmental mechanisms.
This book argues against this line, proposing an alternative drawing on insights from diverse disciplines including psychoanalysis, sociology, social psychology and linguistics, to give power-relations a critical explanatory role in the generation of hatreds. Farhad Dalal follows Norbert Elias to argue that the primary function of race is to make a distinction between the "haves" and "must-not-haves", and that this process is cognitive, emotional and political.
Examining aspects of the subject over the past thousand years, Race, Colour and the Processes of Racialization describes how the world and mind were made black and white, covering:.
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Farhad Dalal concludes that the structures of society are reflected in the structures of the psyche, and both of these are colour coded. This book will be invaluable to students, academics and practitioners in the areas of psychoanalysis, group analysis, sociology, psychotherapy and counselling. Taking the Group Seriously. Farhad Dalal , foreword by Malcolm Pines. In this critique and extension of the work of S. Foulkes, Farhad Dalal presents a thorough contemporary appraisal of the theory of group analysis and its relevance to psychoanalysis as a whole.
The author argues that Foulkes failed to develop a specific set of group concepts, relying instead on the traditional individualistic framework of Freud. The book explores why Foulkes failed to escape from the orthodox mother- infant paradigm and offers a new post-Foulkesian interpretation of group analytic theory. Taking the Group Seriously is divided into six parts which trace the history of ideas behind group work,and draws on a wide range of subjects to support its thesis: not only psychoanalysis and group analysis,but also sociology, biology, chaos theory, genetics, economics, game theory and discourse theory.
Using the author's practical group experience and including the latest ideas on the subject, this volume will be of interest to all those working in the field of psychoanalysis.
Traumatic Experience in the Unconscious Life of Groups. Earl Hopper , foreword by Malcolm Pines. The personification of aggregation and massification — patients with crustacean, contact-shunning and amoeboid, merger-hungry characteristics respectively — is illustrated with detailed clinical vignettes from heterogeneous groups, including drug addicts, victims of incest and sexual abuse, and child survivors of the Shoah.
Concluding with critical commentaries by senior British and American group analysts and psychoanalysts, this volume will make essential reading for both analysts and their students. The Social Unconscious. The social unconscious and its manifestations in group analysis are the focus of this important new book of Earl Hopper 's selected papers.
Drawing on sociology, psychoanalysis and group analysis, he argues that groups and their participants are constrained unconsciously by social, cultural and political facts and forces. These hypotheses are illustrated with clinical vignettes concerning anti-Semitism, racism, the politics of class and gender, and the effects of rapid social change.
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